Wake Effects and Wind Resource

Lidar Sea View

The wakes and wind resource research area investigates the potential to reduce costs in wind resource assessments and to optimise output through increasing understanding of wake effects

The wakes and wind resource research area investigates the potential to reduce costs in wind resource assessments and to optimise output through increasing understanding of wake effects. The research also extends to better understanding the behaviour of wakes across the wind farm and improving modelling techniques and whole energy assessments. At the centre of the research is the goal to reduce the uncertainty of wake losses and wind resource assessments, improving the bankability of projects.

Research to date has accelerated the move to LiDAR technologies from met masts, validated new wake models and optimised layouts. Of particular note has been the pioneering floating LiDAR roadmap which is now recognised as the industry standard definition for floating LiDAR devices. The OWA has also funded and managed several ground breaking campaigns offshore, including deployment of floating LiDAR and new scanning LiDAR devices.

OWA Wake Modelling Challenge

Offshore wind wake modellers are invited to participate in a series of benchmarks through 2019 to test wake models under a wide range of wind climates and layout characteristics, based on operational wind farm data provided by OWA partners. This exciting multistage process will see wind farm benchmarks being introduced periodically throughout the year. The aim of the project is to improve confidence in offshore wind wake models in the prediction of array efficiency which is important to reduce uncertainty in energy yields for offshore wind farms.

A budget of £10,000 is available to developer of the best performing model to support additional simulations. These simulations will add additional insights to help interpret results, calibrate models or quantify uncertainties.

Find out more about the OWA Wake Modelling Challenge:

OWA Wake Modelling Challenge (PDF)

Potential applicant form

Floating LiDAR Repository

The Carbon Trust Offshore Wind Accelerator has produced a Repository of Floating LiDAR deployments to date*. This number currently stands at 84 individual deployments of 13 floating LiDAR system types, deployed at approximately 40 locations as system trials or wind resource assessments. The Repository builds on the body of OWA work which has supported floating LiDAR technology to develop and mature. The number and type of deployments exemplifies the growing confidence in the offshore wind industry that Floating LiDARs are the future of wind resource assessments for proposed offshore wind farms.

This document is backwards looking by nature, however it may be possible that OWA will look to maintain, expand and update this document periodically to include new developments and deployments. If you have any thoughts or comments please email OWA@carbontrust.com.

*data collected up to February 2018, It should be noted that the information presented is based on information available and shared by stakeholder parties at the time of writing, but it is not possible to guarantee that all FLS deployments have been listed.

OWA Floating LiDAR Repository July 2018

OWA measurement campaign at Rødsand II

In 2013, the OWA launched a measurement campaign at the Rødsand II wind farm. The £2m wake effects measurement project has provided detailed measurement data to the wind industry to help better understand how the wind behaves in complex situations offshore. This data is currently being analysed in order to help the industry improve prediction accuracy, reduce financing costs and optimise windfarm layouts.

Roadmap for commercial acceptance of floating LiDAR Version 2.0 and floating LiDAR recommended practices

The Carbon Trust Offshore Wind Accelerator has published the second version of the roadmap for commercial acceptance of floating LIDAR technology. The Roadmap, originally published in 2013, has been revised to include updates, extensions and new performance indicators based on industry engagement to ensure the Roadmap continues to be fit for purpose for several user groups in to the future.

Alongside the Roadmap there is also a guidance note which provides supplementary guidance. This document is intended to be read alongside Version 2.0 of the Roadmap and gives further discussion on how the roadmap should be interpreted, to avoid ambiguities and to encourage greater industry consensus in the use and application of the roadmap.

To access the old version of the Roadmap please email owa@carbontrust.com.

OWA Floating LiDAR Roadmap – Version 2.0 (PDF)

OWA Floating LiDAR Roadmap – Supplementary Guidance Note (PDF)

OWA Floating LiDAR Roadmap Update Webinar Slidepack October 2018 (PDF)

The OWA has also published the Floating LiDAR Recommended Practice document Working closely with the IEA Task 32 workforce. The Recommended Practices sets out key parameters and issues to consider when deploying floating LiDAR devices, both during validation and in commercial campaigns. The OWA published this document in 2016, and the IEA built upon this work to publish a further version in 2017, available on their website.

Report: OWA Floating LiDAR Recommended Practice

The development of the 'OWA Recommended Practices for Floating LiDAR systems' was a fundamental milestone for the total acceptance of this technology to measure bankable wind conditions in the offshore environment

Javier Rodriguez Ruiz- Iberdrola

Review of LiDAR uncertainty standard

The OWA has undertaken a thorough expert review of the IEC standard (IEC 61400-12-1). The project outcomes outline how the uncertainty assessment procedure for LiDARs could be improved.  A revised methodology is proposed to provide clarifications and improvements, which in some use cases, could lead to an overall uncertainty reduction of up to 6%.

Report: OWA LiDAR uncertainty standard review (PDF)

Floating LiDAR validation campaigns

The OWA Wakes and Wind Resource working group has also funded validation campaigns for several floating LiDAR devices.

During the four year trial a range of floating LiDAR devices were deployed alongside existing offshore met-masts to enable the comparison of wind speed and direction measurements. Over the course of the campaign five systems were tested at six different sites across Europe:

  • Babcock at Gwynt y Mor;
  • FLiDAR at Gwynt y Mor, Narec (now ORE Catapult Blyth), and Neart na Gaoithe;
  • EOLOS FLS200 at IJmuiden Met Mast;
  • Fugro Oceanor Seawatch Floating LiDAR at East Anglia ONE; and
  • Fraunhofer IWES Wind LiDAR Buoy at FINO1 Met Mast.

Following the trials, many of the devices tested are now being deployed by offshore wind farm developers in commercial campaigns.

Press release, May 2017: Carbon Trust drives industry acceptance of new floating LiDAR systems....

Remote Wind Measurements Using Scanning LiDAR in Dublin Bay

The Wakes and Wind Resource technology working group supports any means by which the mapping of energy resource across potential sites can be improved. In the Remote Wind Measurements Project scanning LiDARs were deployed with scanning patterns designed to measure horizontal wind speed throughout a 58 km2 near shore offshore wind farm development area in Dublin Bay. Additionally, vertically scanning ground-based LiDARs were deployed to provide reference measurements enabling validation of the scanning LiDAR measurements. The project demonstrated the use of scanning LiDAR systems operating in single and dual Doppler at ranges up to 15km. 

More details can be found in the project summary.

OWA Scanning LiDAR Final Report